The word Eutrophication is derived from a Greek word: Eutrophic; which means nourishing.
Eutrification is used to describe the nutrients in natural waters. One of the most serious environmental threats to aquatic ecosystems is eutrophication, which occurs only in lakes, bays, stabilization ponds, and sometimes in slow-moving rivers. When organic matter or surface runoff containing nitrates and phosphates enters the water body, eutrophication occurs, which directly controls the growth of algae and other aquatic plants. In simpler terms, eutrophication is a biological reaction that occurs in response to the increase of nutrients entering water resources. The overload of nutrients in aquatic systems can lead to an increase in production and every once in a while cause a very toxic bloom of algae and cause a lack of oxygen in large areas, which can destroy the aquatic life that depends on dissolved oxygen in water. eliminate are
Four main factors play a role in this phenomenon, which include nitrogen, phosphorus, sunlight and carbon dioxide. Entering clean water with a high flow rate into water sources contaminated with nutrients and organic substances at the beginning of the entry of these substances in order to reduce the water retention time and the faster exit of nutrients and their dilution should also be considered as a way to prevent eutrophication. which is useful for reservoirs behind the dam and small lakes.
The most important destructive ecological effects of eutrophication include: reduction of water clarity, cover of opportunistic seaweed, increase of phytoplankton biomass, change in macrophyte species, water purification problems, creation of zooplankton bloom, increase of toxic phytoplankton species, reduction of sunlight passage, fish death And… he pointed out.
One of the ways to prevent eutrophication is to reduce the release of phosphorus into the environment. There are several approaches to improve phosphorus bioavailability to plants, animals and reduce phosphorus pollution. These approaches include adding phytase enzyme to animal feed, soaking feed in water, growing plant species with less phytic acid, engineered plants with phytase enzyme, dissolving soil phytate by microorganisms, another strategy for dissolving phosphorus in soil.
- Reddy, C. S., Kim, S. C., & Kaul, T. (2017). Genetically modified phytase crops role in sustainable plant and animal nutrition and ecological development: a review. 3 Biotech, 7(3), 195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0797-3